American National Standards Outline for Commercial Diver Course


1.  Introduction

2.  Principals of Diving Physics

      A.  Normal air: Definition, Composition, Properties, Characteristics, Gas Laws Affecting Air

      B.  Water- Salt and Fresh: Composition, Properties, Characteristics, Weight

      C.  Terminology and Values Used in Pressure: Partial, Barometric, Atmospheric, Gauge and Absolute

            1.  Mechanical Pressure

            2.  Other Ambient Pressures Related to Diving

      D.  Buotancy in Water: Archimedes' Principal, Examples and Application

      E.  Definitions: Buoyancy, Density, Area and Volume

      F.  Gas Laws: Boyle's, Charle's, Henry's, General Gas Law, Guy Lusac's Law and Dalton's Law

3.  Formula Applications

      A.  Gauge and Absolute Pressure at Various Depths
      B.  Volume of Cylinders
      C.  Time Duration of Air Supply From Air Flasks
      D.  Air Supplies Required by Divers
      E.  Flow Requirements for Masks and Helmets
      F.  Required capacity of air compressors
      G.  Hose Test Formula
      H.  Application of Physics Formulas
4.  Air Decompression Tables and Decompression Procedures
      A.  History of Decompression
      B.  Decompression: Definition and Types
      C.  US Navy Standard Air Decompression Tables
      D.  Canadian Dive Tables
      E.  Surface Decompression Tables (O2 and Air)
      F.  Practical Application of Decompression Tables in Theoretical Dives
      G.  Altitude Diving Tables and Computation: Barometric, Tables 4% Rule
5.  Anatomy and Physiology Related to Diving
      A.  Anatomy and Physiology of the Circulatory System
      B.  Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System
      C.  Body Cavities Containing Air
      D.  Effects of Pressure Applied Equally and Unequally to the Body
      E.  Secondary Effects of Pressure
            1.  Toxic Effects of Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide
            2.  Narcotic Effect of Nitrogen
            3.  Nitrogen Absorption and Elimination
            4.  Effects of Presure in Excess of 1 Atmosphere on Body Tissues
            5.  Principles Involving Prevention of Decompression Sickness
6.  Diving Diseases, Injuries and Psychological Aspects (Including definition, symptoms, causes, along with the prevention and treatment for each of the following situations)
      A.  Anoxia/Hypoxia
      B.  Hypercapnia/Asphyxia
      C.  Squeeze
      D.  Decompression Sickness
      E.  Arterial Gas Embolism (AGE)
      F.  High Pressure Nervous Syndrome (HPNS)
      G.  Nitrogen Naracosis
      H.  Oxygen  TOxicity (CNS/Pulmonary)
      I.  Pneumothorax
      J.  Mediastinal and Subcutaneous Emphysema
      K.  Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
      L.  Drowning (Near Drowning)
      M.  Lipoid Pneumonia
      N.  Bone Necrosis
      O.  Psychological Aspects of Diving
            1.  Screening for Phobias
            2.  Rationale of Physical vs. Mental Abilities of Divers
            3.  Water Skills and Their Psychological Implications
            4.  Specific Adaptations (Breathing Through the Nose, Use of Mechanical Equipment etc.)
            5.  Emotional and Physical Stability
            6.  Diver Stress and its Effects
            7.  Comparison of Panic and Mental Controls
            8.  Diving Philosophies
            9.  Dive Planning
          10.  Breathing and Diving (Related to Stress Stimulus)
          11.  Rules for Reacting to all Unusual Feelings, Control of Stress, Stimulus
          12.  "Green Diver Syndrome"
7.  Treatment of Diver's Illness and Injuries
      A.  Use of Following Treatment Tables: Table 1A, 2A, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6A, 7 and 8
      B.  Review Case Histories with Cases That Illustrate Both Proper and Improper Selection and Use of Treatment Tables
      C.  Practical Use of Tables With Hypothetical Cases and Various Symptoms
      D.  Examination of Injured Divers Including: Vital Signs, Mental Condition, Cranial Nerves, Sensory Nerves, Motor Nerves, Coordination and Reflexes
8.  First Aid for Divers and CPR
      A.  Shock: Electric, Traumatic, Emotional
      B.  Artificial Respiration (CPR) for: Drowning, CO2 and CO Poisoning, and Mouth to Mouth Method
      C.  Use of of Mechanical Resuscitation
      D.  Hemorrhage (Bleeding): Venous, Arterial, Capillary, Internal - Lungs and Stomach
      E.  Fracture: Simple and Compound
      F.  Burns: Classification, Chemical, Thermal, Treatment
      G.  Wounds
      H.  Communication with Medical Personnel (Terminology)
      I.  Assist in Treatment of Diving RElated Illness and Accidents
      J.  Cardiac Arrest:  Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Prevention/Treatment
9.  Nxious Gases In Enclosed Spaces
      A.  Explosive Gases, Types and Generation Process
      B.  Instruments Used in Detecting Gases: Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Monoxide Detector
      C.  Elimination and Prevention of Gas Hazards
      D.  Means of Avoiding Accidents from Gas Hazards
      E.  Rules for Mask or Helmet Removal
10.  Environmental Hazards of Diving
      A.  Marine Life: Wound-Inflicting Species, Venomous Bites, Treatment, Diver Evasive Action
      B.  Exposure/Weather Patterns
            1.  Air and Water Temperatures
            2.  Body Protection (Hyperthermia and Hypothermia)
                  a.  Exposure Suits
                  b.  Underwear
                  c.  Sunburn
      C.  Wave Motion - Seasickness
      D.  Surf, Surge, Currents and Tides
      E.  Bottom Conditions/Visibility
      F.  Polluted Water/Hazards
      G.  Identification of Underwater Hazards
      H.  Oxygen Deficient Environments
      I.  Underwater Explosions
      J.  Underwater Suctions and Discharges
 11.  The Hyperbaric Chamber and Associated Equipment
      A.  Gas Supply for Chambers Including: Capacity, Ventiliation, Supply & Exhaust Valves, Gauges, Relief & Gag Valve, Primary & Secondary Gas Supply, Atmostphere Sensors (O2, CO2 and Temperature), Life Support Systems, Scrubbers, Heater/Chiller, Plumbing, Oxygen System
      B.  Precautions in Chamber Use Including: Lighting, Door Seals and Openings, Oxygen Fires, Testing and Maintenance of Chamber
      C.  Operational Considerations Including: Oxygen Safety, Personal Requirements, Smoking and General Fire Hazards
      D.  Equipment
      E.  Communication System
12.  Trainee Participation in Chamber Operations
      A.  Review Operation Procedures for the Chamber
      B.  Practice Maintaining Steady Rate of Ascent/Decent
      C.  Conduct Simulated Treatments
      D.  Use of Man Lock, Treatment Lock, and the Purpose of Medical Locks
      E.  Conduct Simulated Treatment Using Oxygen and/or Nitrox
      F.  Practice Maintaining Required Pressure While Ventilating
      G.  Safety Procedures
      H.  Decompression Operations
            1.  Surface Decompression Using O2 and/or Nitrox
            2.  Surface Decompression Using Air
      I.  Lock-in/out Procedures
      J.  Pressure Test
13.  Seamanship and Rigging Fundamentals
      A.  Fiber Rope: Types, Sizes (how measured), Care and Maintenance
      B.  Wire Rope: Types, Sizes (how measured), Care and Maintenance
      C.  Synthetic Rope: Nylon, Polyester (Dacron), Polyproplene
      D.  Splices: Types, Application, Strength, Safety Factors
      E.  Wire Rope Clips: Use, Method of Application, Strength
      F.  Terminal Fittings: Types, Strength, Methods of Application
      G.  Blocks and Tackles and Mechanical Advantage
      H.  Come-Alongs, Chain Hoists, Shackles and Grip Hoist
      I.  Winches and Air Tuggers
      J.  Hand Signals for Controlling Crane Operations
      K.  Calculation of Problems for Safe Working Load and Braking Strain for Fiber and Wire Ropes
      L.  Slings
      M.  Performance of Underwater Projects for Practical Application of Rigging
14.  Practical Application of Seamanship and Rigging
      A.  Splices, Fiber Rope: Eye, Short, Long
      B.  Splices, Wire Rope : Flemish Eye (Molly Hogan), Eye Splice, Back Splice, Short Splice
      C.  Knots and Hitches: Square Knot, Clove, Rolling, Timber, Telegraph, Two Half and Round Turn and Two Half Hitches; Fisherman's, Single Sheet, Double Sheet Bend, Catspaw in Center of the Line, Prussic Knot; Single, Running, Stopper, French, Double and Baker Bowlines. Girth Hitch and Double Carrick
      D.  Practical Application in Knot Tying and Splicing
      E.  Reeving of Block and Tackles
      F.  Practical Underwater Projects Requiring Rigging
      G.  Hooks
      H.  Mechanical Advantage
      I.  Chain
15.  Lightweight Diving Equipment Function and Nomenclature
      A.  History and Development: Diving Equipment, Advantages and Disadvantages of Deep Sea Gear vs. Lightweight Gear
      B.  Use of Lightweight Diving Equipment
      C.  Nomenclature and Function of: Masks and Helmets, Dress, Weight Belts, Air Hose, Lifeline, Communications, Harness, Diver's Radio, Gas Manifolds
      D.  Disassemble and Assemble Masks and Helmets. (A Certification to perform monthly maintenance of all Kirby Morgan Helmets will be presented to all students who successfully complete this training)
16.  Lightweight Diving Procedures and Techniques
      A.  Safety Precautions: Ascending Procedures, Reasons for not Removing Lifeline, Last Resort of Ditching Mask of Helmet
      B.  Orientation Dive Using Lightweight Diving Gear, Helmets and Weighted Belt
            1.  Instructions Before Entering the Water: Proper Method of Dressing, Location of Air Control Valve, Location of Exhaust Valve, Proper Use of Weighted Belt, Proper Method of Securing Lifeline to Diver, Location and Use of EGS Valve and Bottle
            2.  Dress Diver and Commence Dive Including Proper Water Entry, Observing Hand Signals and Proper Ditching of Weights
            3.  Water Entries
            4.  Orientation Dives
            5.  Use of Minimem of One Demand and One Freeflow Mask or Helmet
            6.  Bailout Procedures
      C.  Proper Tending Procedures
      D.  Proper Use of Communication
      E.  Time Keeping/Chart Procedures
      F.  Use of Diver's Log Book: Organization and Content, Official Documentation and Recording of Dives
      G.  Commercial Diving Standards
      H.  Requirements for Training
      I.  Diver Classification, Qualifications and Certifications
      J.  Diving Accident Reports
17.  Maintenance of Diver's Umbilical
      A.  Lifelines: Make-up, Maintenance, Minimum Strength Requirement, Testing, Snap Shackle Types/Sizes
      B.  Airhose: Make-up, Maintenance, Testing, Marking
      C.  Air Hose Connection
      D.  Checking for Safety
      E.  Communications Line: Care and Maintenance
      F.  Practical Application
18.  Underwater Work Using Lightweight Diving Equipment
      A.  Safety Precautions
      B.  Emergency Procedures for Loss of Gas: Bail Out Bottle Procedures, Pneumo Hose Procedures, Standby Diver Procedures
      C.  Bottom Search Project (Lost Object Recovery)
      D.  Single Flange Ups
      E.  Blank Flange Removal
      F.  Multiple Bolts and Flange Projects
      G.  Penetration (Outfalls and Intakes)
      H.  Overhead Patches, Sea Chests
      I.  Angle Descending Line
      J.  Hogging Line Project
      K.  Excavating and Dredging: Air Lifts, Hand Jetting
      L.  Liveboating Operational Considerations: Sunset Rule, Visibility, Sea Slate, Vessel, Tending Considerations
      M.  Liveboatting Safety Considerations: Depth Maximum, Standby Boat, Propeller Shutdown, Propeller Guards, Standby Diver, Bailout Supply, Bottom Time Limits
19.  Operations Planning (Proper Sequence of the Planning Process is as follows:)
      A.  Define Objectives
      B.  Collect and Analyze Data (Underwater Surveys/Inspections)
      C.  Establish Operational Tasks
      D.  Select Diving Technique
      E.  Select Equipment and Supplies
      F.  Select and Assemble the Diving Team
      G.  Written Job Description
      H.  Equipment List
      I.  Make Final Preparations; Check All Safety Precautions
      J.  Start Operation
      K.  Maintain Safety Requirements/Considerations
20.  Diving Logs, Records and Standards for Commercial Diving Operation
      A.  Use of Log Books: Organization and Content, Official Documentation Recording of Dives
      B.  Commerical Diving Standards
      C.  Diving Accident Reports
21.  Underwater Tools
      A.  Nomenclature and Use of Tools: Hand Tools, Pneumatic and Hydraulic Tools, Special Tools, Dredges and Air Lifts, Lift Bags
      B.  Underwater Use of Tools
      C.  Inspection/Maintenance of Tools
      D.  Safety Precautions
      E.  Practical Application in the Use of Tools
22.  Drawings, Blueprint Reading, Report Writing
      A.  Introduction to Blueprint Reading
      B.  Scale Drawing and Schematics
      C.  Report Writing
23.  Hot Water Systems
      A.  System Description
      B.  Operation Procedures
      C.  Hot Water Suits and Umbilical
      D.  Maintenance and Troubleshooting
      E.  Safety Procedures
      F.  Practical Experience in Operation and Maintenance of Diver's Hot Water System
24.  Introduction to Topside Welding
      A.  Application of Topside Welding
      B.  Limitations of Topside Welding
      C.  Topside Welding Techniques
25.  Topside Welding Equipment
      A.  Welding Machine
      B.  Welding Cables
      C.  Electrode Holders
      D.  Electrodes
      E.  Welding Glass and Faceplate
      F.  Safety Precautions
26.  Oxygen-Acetylene Cutting Techniques
      A.  History of Oxy-Acetylene Cutting
      B.  The Torch
      C.  Oxygen Cylinders/Care in Handling
      D.  Gauges for Oxygen Cylinders/Care in Handling
      E.  Safety Precautions in Oxy-Acetylene Cutting
      F.  Technique for Oxy-Acetylene Cutting
27.  Practical Application of Oxygen-Acetylene Method of Cutting
      A.  Construction and Nomenclature of Cutting Equipment
      B.  Setting Up Equipment
      C.  Techniques
      D.  Accomplish Projects
      E.  Safety Precautions
28.  Introduction to Underwater Cutting and Welding
      A.  History of Oxy-arc Underwater Cutting
      B.  Construction and Nomenclature of Underwater Cutting Equipment
      C.  The Torch Holder for Electrodes
      D.  Electrodes
      E.  Welding Generators
      F.  Welding Cables
      G.  Safety Switch
      H.  Oxygen Cylinders/Care in Handling
      I.  Oxygen Hose/Size/Care in Handling
      J.  Gauges for Oxygen Cylinders/Care in Handling
      K.  Safety Precautions in Oxy-arc Underwater Cutting
      L.  Technique for Oxy-arc Underwater Cutting
      M.  Setting Up Equipment
      N.  Accomplish Projects Using at Least Two Different Manufacturers of Oxy-arc Cutting Rod (Would vary upon availability of materials)
      O.  Techniques
      P.  Safety Precautions
      Q.  Welding Machines
      R.  Welding Cables
      S.  Electrode Holders
      T.  Electrodes
      U.  Welding Glass and Faceplate
      V.  Waterproofing Materials
      W.  Application of Underwater Welding
      X.  Limitations of Underwater Welding
      Y.  Underwater Welding Techniques
      Z.  Safety Precautions
29.  Mixed Gas Diving
      A.  History and Medical Aspects of Mixed Gas Diving
      B.  Formulas
      C.  Decompression Procedures
      D.  Diving and Emergency Procedures
      E.  Operator Safety Considerations
      F.  Treatments
      G.  Practical Applications
30.  Marine Engines and Compressors
      A.  Application of Diesel Engines in Diving: Air Compressors, Generators, Cranes, Boats, Trucks, Fork Lifts, Hydraulic Power Units, etc.
      B.  Seven Systems Common to all Diesel Engines: Fuel System, Fuel Filters, Injectors, Lubrication System, Cooling System, Intake System, Exhaust System
      C.  Power Take Offs and Clutches
      D.  Diesel Operation (Practical)
      E.  Maintenance (Practical)
      F.  Trouble Shooting (Practical)
      G.  Types of Compressors Used in Diving
      H.  Compressor Systems: Intake, Compression Stage, Intercooler, Lubrication System (Compressor Oil for Breathing Air Compressors), Variable Differential Unloader, Hydraulic Unloader, Filters, Volume Tanks, Supply Valve/Manifold
      I.  Compressor Calculations: Capacity (CFM/SCFM), Depth Limit (Over Bottom Pressure)
      J.  Set Up of Compressors Used in Diving/Chamber Operations
      K.  Compression Operation (Practical)
      L.  Compressor Maintenance (Practical)
      M.  Troubleshooting (Practical)
      N.  Air Purity Testing
      O.  Valves and Fitting
      P.  Air System Schematic
31.  Industrial and Offshore Safety
      A.  US Coast Guard Regulations
      B.  OSHA Regulations
      C.  ADC Standard
      D.  General Industrial Safety: Drugs and Alcohol, Hazard Identification, Work Zone Safety, Lock-out and Tag-out, Personal Protective Equipment, Working in Confined Spaces, Hazardous Materials, Fire Safety
      E.  Offshore Safety: H2S Safety, Helicopter Orientation, Personnel Safety Basket, Life Jackets, Life Rafts/Boats, Visual Location Aids, Audio Location Aids
      F.  Basic Crane Safety: Rules and Regulations, Slings, Rigging Hardware, Proper Rigging, Techniques, Signaling, Chain Slings, Hoists, Knots